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The Turkish feminist movement began in the 19th century during the decline of the Ottoman Empire.The ideal of gender equality was embraced after the declaration of the Republic of Turkey by the administration of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, whose modernizing reforms included a ban on polygamy and the provision of full political rights to Turkish women by 1934.After the 1980 Turkish coup d'état, women from both urban and academic milieus began to meet in reading groups and discuss feminist literature together.In these "awareness-raising groups", which were established notably in Istanbul, Ankara and Izmir, they criticized the standard construction of the family as well as the gender-specific role behavior that was forced on women.

In 1987 feminists organized the first public protest against male violence, followed by campaigns against sexual harassment, "purple needle", and campaigns seeking the right of self-determination over the female body.Early feminists published woman magazines in different languages and established different organizations dedicated to the advancement of women.The first women's association in Turkey, the Ottoman Welfare Organization of Women, was founded in 1908 and became partially involved in the Young Turks Movement.A criminal law has been established that deals with the female sexuality as a matter of individual rights, rather than as a matter of family honor.Additions to the Turkish constitution oblige the state to use all the necessary means to promote the equality of the sexes.Family courts were also created, labour laws were instituted to prohibit sexism, and programs were created to educate against domestic violence and to improve access to education for girls.

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